Hello everyone!!! i want make an article about 2012, the end of the world and the shift of magnetic field because i think there is too much confusion in our mind and too much apprehension. Since there are many things to talk about, I wanted to make a page that will be continuously updated. There are various reports that seek to address the topic from a scientific perspective.
What is that pole shift thing?
Here’s what people selling books about the end of the world and stuff don’t want you to know. Too much misinformation is going around so that people can cash in!
Pole shift is a rare phenomenon and characterized by the north and the south poles swapping places. Such reversals, recorded in the magnetism of ancient rocks, are unpredictable. They come at irregular intervals averaging about 300,000 years; the last one was 780,000 years ago. There is some sort of hype around pole shift since the fear propaganda has started about the end of the world in 2012
Pole shift is a process that roughly takes 5,000 years to complete and doesn’t start on a specific date and time and the real truth is that nobody knows when the next one is due. So let’s put an end right now to that 2012 thing before we go any further.
If you came here to know if a pole shift would end our world in 2012, well no.
That being said, to really understand what a pole shift is, we have to take a look at the inner core of our planet. The magnetic field of our planet comes from this inner core, which is mainly a solid ball of iron 70% as wide as the moon and as hot as the sun. It doesn’t spin at the same rate as the earth; it has it’s own rate.
What creates the magnetic field is the convection of molten iron, within the outer liquid core and also with the overall planetary rotation. The creation of the magnetic field can be explained with the dynamo effect: When conducting fluid flows across an existing magnetic field, electric currents are induced, which in turn creates another one. When this new field reinforces the original, a dynamo is created which sustains itself. It’s a little more complicated than that and you can do your own research on magnetic fields and dynamo if you want to have more details about it.
There’s a popular belief that wants a pole shift to completely remove the earth’s magnetic field during it’s reversal. It would then expose the earth to space radiation and solar storms. Well, once again, this ain’t true and here’s why from a NASA article:
They’ve also learned what happens during a reversal. Reversals take a few thousand years to complete, and during that time–contrary to popular belief–the magnetic field does not vanish. “It just gets more complicated,” says Glatzmaier. Magnetic lines of force near Earth’s surface become twisted and tangled, and magnetic poles pop up in unaccustomed places. A south magnetic pole might emerge over Africa, for instance, or a north pole over Tahiti. Weird. But it’s still a planetary magnetic field, and it still protects us from space radiation and solar storms.
To summarize everything, pole shift have happened before and will happen again. We just don’t know when the next one will occur. Like some say, we might be overdue because the last one was 780,000 years ago, but here’s the way I see it:
They come at irregular intervals averaging about 300,000 years and it has now been 780,000 years since the last one. Then we’ve been due for 480,000 years! Where I’m getting at is that your parents generation was also overdue, your grandparents generation was overdue and since the start of civilization on this earth it was overdue. Even the Mayas were overdue. What I’m trying to say is that it could’ve happened way before that and that it can happen tomorrow or in 100,000 years so don’t worry too much about it. Again, the process takes 5,000 years to complete so I bet you won’t notice it too much.
Here’s all the popular beliefs and why it’s not true:
- A pole reversal will happen in 2012. False, it will happen but we don’t know when yet. I’m pretty sure the NASA would be able to confirm if it was even a 2012 possibility.
- A pole reversal would decrease the strength of our magnetic field to near zero. False, it would still be there and as strong as it is now, just more complicated.
- A pole reversal would have terrible impact on our planet. True, but the process takes 5,000 years to complete. It doesn’t happen just like that when you wake up one morning.
- We’re overdue for a pole shift. Maybe, but we’ve been overdue for the past 380,000 years. Our little 2,000 years of history is pretty small in that. Do you believe we don’t know when it’s going to happen?
I hope this article is putting light on the subject because I think it’s an important matter: too much false information is going around about the end of the world in 2012 and pole shift so that people can cash in.
There’s two important concepts about pole shift: Magnetic reversal and change in the axis of rotation of the Earth. Magnetic reversal being covered, I will explain the possible change in the Earth’s rotational axis. We’ll start with Wikipedia’s definition of a pole shift:
The pole shift theory is a hypothesis that the axis of rotation of a planet has not always been at its present-day locations or that the axis will not persist there; in other words, that its physical poles had been or will be shifted. Pole shift theory is almost always discussed in the context of Earth, but other solar system bodies may have experienced axial reorientation during their existences.
How can the poles physically change location?
To really understand the way poles can physically change location, let’s take a look at the Earth’s different layers:
As you see on this picture, our planet has mainly 3 layers: Crust, mantle and core. The core is then actually divided in two: Solid inner core and liquid outer core. The crust is the layer we live on and it’s very thin compared to other layers. If the earth was an apple, the skin would be the crust, so you can see it’s really thin compared to the rest. This crust is divided into plates called tectonic plates and they sort of float on the mantle just below. These plates usually move along smoothly but sometimes they stick and build up pressure. When there’s too much pressure, the rock bends and we get an Earthquake. So now we all understand that the crust “float” on the mantle (The mantle flows so that’s why the crust can actually “float” on it).
We’re now getting to the real deal. The reason why the poles would shift is because of mass distribution. Mass distribution explains why the Earth rotate the way it does and I like to explain it with laundry: When you put clothes in your washing machine, you try to distribute them equally with the space you have. If you put everything on one side, when the washing machine starts it will make an awful noise and probably start shaking and moving around. You have to stop it, balance what’s in it correctly and start over. The Earth act the same way and it rotate smoothly because it’s well balanced. Of course it’s a little more complicated than that but for our needs we don’t need more. If an extra weight unbalance the Earth, it would tilt and rotate itself until the extra weight moves somewhere near the equator. The poles(physical poles as in top and bottom of Earth) would still be pointing the same direction, but the continents would be shifted completely due to the moving crust. That’s why knowing about the crust is important: Because it “float” on the surface, it can move freely and such a radical change in the Earth’s rotational axis would cause it to move a lot. Such a drastic change would cause the crust to slip and you very well imagine the disasters it can cause. This theory is called “True Polar Wander”.
Why and how would this happen?
There’s evidence it happened in the past and this theory could explain a lot of things that remained mysterious. There’s a couple of theories about how it could happen next:
- Important mass building at the poles
- Continents drift
- An asteroid hitting Earth
- A large object/Planet not from the Solar system approaching Earth
- Something like a super sized volcano formed far from the equator
So as you can see once again, it’s all about a critical mass building up far from the equator. But Adam Maloof, professor in Geosciences at Princeton University has something really interesting to say:
If a true polar wander event has occurred in our planet’s history, it’s likely been when the continents formed a single mass on one side of the Earth. We don’t expect there to be another event in the foreseeable future, though. The Earth’s surface is pretty well balanced today.
So, as you can see, it’s not like the magnetic reversal which is mostly unpredictable and can happen anytime (Even though as I explained it’s not that much of a big deal). It’s a process that we can see happening. The only drastic way it could happen is with an asteroid striking Earth or a large object/planet getting near Earth. For the asteroid, NASA is monitoring near Earth objects and I’m sure they do a good job with that. For the planet approaching it’s clear people are making reference to Planet X/Nibiru. Once again, if you haven’t read my article Planet X – Why it doesn’t matter that much I encourage you to do so. This will give you some information on why it’s not really a possibility.
As I said in Part I, It happened in the past and it will happen again, we just don’t know when. I decided not to give to much historic informations on the pole shift theory as I know you can all find that fairly easily on Wikipedia and other places. In fact here’s a link to Pole Shift theories on Wikipedia. I don’t like repeating other’s website content and my goal was really to point out how the crust could move around the globe and expose the fact that it’s a mass distribution problem that cause the pole shift.
It’s a credible theory and I won’t try to kill it. In fact, Albert Einstein thought it was a credible theory. But that doesn’t mean we have to fear this! There’s no evidence pointing for that to happen any time soon. Like any other doomsday prophecy there’s a fear propaganda built around it and don’t get caught in that.
What’s the relation between this Pole Shift and 2012?
There’s no clear link between 2012 and that physical pole shift. It’s most likely linked with Planet X approaching Earth and then causing a pole shift due to the change in gravity which holds our Solar system the way it is. There’s also a possibility for an asteroid to hit Earth. TU24 just missed Earth a couple of days ago and I remember that I read about 2012 and TU24 hitting Earth. Anyway, there’s probably not much to fear about 2012.
Conclusion – Will a Pole shift put an end to our world anytime soon?
A pole shift probably won’t happen anytime soon as nothing is pointing toward that direction, but it will happen someday. I think it’s a really interesting and credible scientific possibility. I just don’t buy the option it will happen anytime soon. It’s something we can track and as Maloof said, the Earth’s surface is pretty well balanced at the moment. Of course something unpredictable can happen but we can say that everyday in life. Every time I drive my car there’s a possibility for me to die but I just don’t think about it maybe like 95% of the population. Well , there’s a slight possibility for a pole shift and a magnetic reversal everyday but life goes on.
if you don’t believe in me (an italian boy), believe in NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
One of the most bizarre theories about 2012 has built up with very little attention to facts. This idea holds that a cosmic alignment of the sun, Earth, the center of our galaxy — or perhaps the galaxy’s thick dust clouds — on the winter solstice could for some unknown reason lead to destruction. Such alignments can occur but these are a regular occurrence and can cause no harm (and, indeed, will not even be at its closest alignment during the 2012 solstice.)
The details are as follows: Viewed far from city lights, a glowing path called the Milky Way can be seen arching across the starry sky. This path is formed from the light of millions of stars we cannot see individually. It coincides with the mid plane of our galaxy, which is why our galaxy is also named the Milky Way.
Thick dust clouds also populate the galaxy. And while infrared telescopes can see them clearly, our eyes detect these dark clouds only as irregular patches where they dim or block the Milky Way’s faint glow. The most prominent dark lane stretches from the constellations Cygnus to Sagittarius and is often called the Great Rift, sometimes the Dark Rift.
Another impressive feature of our galaxy lies unseen in Sagittarius: the galactic center, about 28,000 light-years away, which hosts a black hole weighing some four million times the sun’s mass.
The claim for 2012 links these two pieces of astronomical fact with a third — the position of the sun near the galactic center on Dec. 21, the winter solstice for the Northern Hemisphere — to produce something that makes no astronomical sense at all.
As Earth makes its way around the sun, the sun appears to move against the background stars, which is why the visible constellations slowly change with the seasons. On Dec. 21, 2012, the sun will pass about 6.6 degrees north of the galactic center — that’s a distance that looks to the eye to be about 13 times the full moon’s apparent size — and it’s actually closer a couple of days earlier. There are different claims about why this bodes us ill, but they boil down to the coincidence of the solstice with the sun entering the Dark Rift somehow portending disaster or the mistaken notion that the sun and Earth becoming aligned with the black hole in the galactic center allows some kind of massive gravitational pull on Earth.
The first strike against this theory is that the solstice itself does not correlate to any movements of the stars or anything in the universe beyond Earth. It just happens to be the day that Earth’s North Pole is tipped farthest from the sun.
Second, Earth is not within range of strong gravitational effects from the black hole at the center of the galaxy since gravitational effects decrease exponentially the farther away one gets. Earth is 93 million miles from the sun and 165 quadrillion miles from the Milky Way’s black hole. The sun and the moon (a smaller mass, but much closer) are by far the most dominant gravitational forces on Earth. Throughout the course of the year, our distance from the Milky Way’s black hole changes by about one part in 900 million – not nearly enough to cause a real change in gravity’s pull. Moreover, we’re actually nearest to the galactic center in the summer, not at the winter solstice.
Third, the sun appears to enter the part of the sky occupied by the Dark Rift every year at the same time, and its arrival there in Dec. 2012 portends precisely nothing.
Enjoy the solstice, by all means, and don’t let the Dark Rift, alignments, solar flares, magnetic field reversals, potential impacts or alleged Maya end-of-the-world predictions get in the way.
EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD
Scientists understand that Earth’s magnetic field has flipped its polarity many times over the millennia. In other words, if you were alive about 800,000 years ago, and facing what we call north with a magnetic compass in your hand, the needle would point to ‘south.’ This is because a magnetic compass is calibrated based on Earth’s poles. The N-S markings of a compass would be 180 degrees wrong if the polarity of today’s magnetic field were reversed. Many doomsday theorists have tried to take this natural geological occurrence and suggest it could lead to Earth’s destruction. But would there be any dramatic effects? The answer, from the geologic and fossil records we have from hundreds of past magnetic polarity reversals, seems to be ‘no.’
Reversals are the rule, not the exception. Earth has settled in the last 20 million years into a pattern of a pole reversal about every 200,000 to 300,000 years, although it has been more than twice that long since the last reversal. A reversal happens over hundreds or thousands of years, and it is not exactly a clean back flip. Magnetic fields morph and push and pull at one another, with multiple poles emerging at odd latitudes throughout the process. Scientists estimate reversals have happened at least hundreds of times over the past three billion years. And while reversals have happened more frequently in “recent” years, when dinosaurs walked Earth a reversal was more likely to happen only about every one million years.
Sediment cores taken from deep ocean floors can tell scientists about magnetic polarity shifts, providing a direct link between magnetic field activity and the fossil record. The Earth’s magnetic field determines the magnetization of lava as it is laid down on the ocean floor on either side of the Mid-Atlantic Rift where the North American and European continental plates are spreading apart. As the lava solidifies, it creates a record of the orientation of past magnetic fields much like a tape recorder records sound. The last time that Earth’s poles flipped in a major reversal was about 780,000 years ago, in what scientists call the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal. The fossil record shows no drastic changes in plant or animal life. Deep ocean sediment cores from this period also indicate no changes in glacial activity, based on the amount of oxygen isotopes in the cores. This is also proof that a polarity reversal would not affect the rotation axis of Earth, as the planet’s rotation axis tilt has a significant effect on climate and glaciation and any change would be evident in the glacial record.
Earth’s polarity is not a constant. Unlike a classic bar magnet, or the decorative magnets on your refrigerator, the matter governing Earth’s magnetic field moves around. Geophysicists are pretty sure that the reason Earth has a magnetic field is because its solid iron core is surrounded by a fluid ocean of hot, liquid metal. This process can also be modeled with supercomputers. Ours is, without hyperbole, a dynamic planet. The flow of liquid iron in Earth’s core creates electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field. So while parts of Earth’s outer core are too deep for scientists to measure directly, we can infer movement in the core by observing changes in the magnetic field. The magnetic north pole has been creeping northward – by more than 600 miles (1,100 km) – since the early 19th century, when explorers first located it precisely. It is moving faster now, actually, as scientists estimate the pole is migrating northward about 40 miles per year, as opposed to about 10 miles per year in the early 20th century.
Another doomsday hypothesis about a geomagnetic flip plays up fears about incoming solar activity. This suggestion mistakenly assumes that a pole reversal would momentarily leave Earth without the magnetic field that protects us from solar flares and coronal mass ejections from the sun. But, while Earth’s magnetic field can indeed weaken and strengthen over time, there is no indication that it has ever disappeared completely. A weaker field would certainly lead to a small increase in solar radiation on Earth – as well as a beautiful display of aurora at lower latitudes — but nothing deadly. Moreover, even with a weakened magnetic field, Earth’s thick atmosphere also offers protection against the sun’s incoming particles.
The science shows that magnetic pole reversal is – in terms of geologic time scales – a common occurrence that happens gradually over millennia. While the conditions that cause polarity reversals are not entirely predictable – the north pole’s movement could subtly change direction, for instance – there is nothing in the millions of years of geologic record to suggest that any of the 2012 doomsday scenarios connected to a pole reversal should be taken seriously. A reversal might, however, be good business for magnetic compass manufacturers.
2012: Killer Solar Flares Are a Physical Impossibility
Given a legitimate need to protect Earth from the most intense forms of space weather – great bursts of electromagnetic energy and particles that can sometimes stream from the sun – some people worry that a gigantic “killer solar flare” could hurl enough energy to destroy Earth. Citing the accurate fact that solar activity is currently ramping up in its standard 11-year cycle, there are those who believe that 2012 could be coincident with such a flare.
But this same solar cycle has occurred over millennia. Anyone over the age of 11 has already lived through such a solar maximum with no harm. In addition, the next solar maximum is predicted to occur in late 2013 or early 2014, not 2012.
Most importantly, however, even the biggest solar flares are not powerful enough to physically destroy Earth.
This is not to say that space weather can’t affect our planet. The explosive heat of a solar flare can’t make it all the way to our globe, but electromagnetic radiation and energetic particles certainly can. Solar flares can temporarily alter the upper atmosphere creating disruptions with signal transmission from, say, a GPS satellite to Earth causing it to be off by many yards. Another phenomenon produced by the sun could be even more disruptive. Known as a coronal mass ejection (CME), these solar explosions propel bursts of particles and electromagnetic fluctuations into Earth’s atmosphere. Those fluctuations could induce electric fluctuations at ground level that could blow out transformers in power grids. The CME’s particles can also collide with crucial electronics onboard a satellite and disrupt its systems.
In an increasingly technological world, where almost everyone relies on cell phones and GPS controls not just your in-car map system, but also airplane navigation and the extremely accurate clocks that govern financial transactions, space weather is a serious matter.
But it is a problem the same way hurricanes are a problem. One can protect oneself with advance information and proper precautions. During a hurricane watch, a homeowner can stay put . . . or he can seal up the house, turn off the electronics and get out of the way. Similarly, scientists at NASA and NOAA give warnings to electric companies, spacecraft operators, and airline pilots before a CME comes to Earth so that these groups can take proper precautions. Improving these predictive abilities the same way weather prediction has improved over the last few decades is one of the reasons NASA studies the sun and space weather. We can’t ignore space weather, but we can take appropriate measures to protect ourselves.
And, even at their worst, the sun’s flares are not physically capable of destroying Earth.
for more information see this video: solar storm
WHY THE WORLD WON’T END
In conclusion, what has been said until now about 2012
Remember the Y2K scare? It came and went without much of a whimper because of adequate planning and analysis of the situation. Impressive movie special effects aside, Dec. 21, 2012, won’t be the end of the world as we know. It will, however, be another winter solstice.
Much like Y2K, 2012 has been analyzed and the science of the end of the Earth thoroughly studied. Contrary to some of the common beliefs out there, the science behind the end of the world quickly unravels when pinned down to the 2012 timeline. Below, NASA Scientists answer several questions that we’re frequently asked regarding 2012.
Question (Q): Are there any threats to the Earth in 2012? Many Internet websites say the world will end in December 2012.
Answer (A): Nothing bad will happen to the Earth in 2012. Our planet has been getting along just fine for more than 4 billion years, and credible scientists worldwide know of no threat associated with 2012.
Q: What is the origin of the prediction that the world will end in 2012?
A: The story started with claims that Nibiru, a supposed planet discovered by the Sumerians, is headed toward Earth. This catastrophe was initially predicted for May 2003, but when nothing happened the doomsday date was moved forward to December 2012. Then these two fables were linked to the end of one of the cycles in the ancient Mayan calendar at the winter solstice in 2012 — hence the predicted doomsday date of December 21, 2012.
Q: Does the Mayan calendar end in December 2012?
A: Just as the calendar you have on your kitchen wall does not cease to exist after December 31, the Mayan calendar does not cease to exist on December 21, 2012. This date is the end of the Mayan long-count period but then — just as your calendar begins again on January 1 — another long-count period begins for the Mayan calendar.
Q: Could phenomena occur where planets align in a way that impacts Earth?
A: There are no planetary alignments in the next few decades, Earth will not cross the galactic plane in 2012, and even if these alignments were to occur, their effects on the Earth would be negligible. Each December the Earth and sun align with the approximate center of the Milky Way Galaxy but that is an annual event of no consequence.
Q: Is there a planet or brown dwarf called Nibiru or Planet X or Eris that is approaching the Earth and threatening our planet with widespread destruction?
A: Nibiru and other stories about wayward planets are an Internet hoax. There is no factual basis for these claims. If Nibiru or Planet X were real and headed for an encounter with the Earth in 2012, astronomers would have been tracking it for at least the past decade, and it would be visible by now to the naked eye. Obviously, it does not exist. Eris is real, but it is a dwarf planet similar to Pluto that will remain in the outer solar system; the closest it can come to Earth is about 4 billion miles.
Q: What is the polar shift theory? Is it true that the earth’s crust does a 180-degree rotation around the core in a matter of days if not hours?
A: A reversal in the rotation of Earth is impossible. There are slow movements of the continents (for example Antarctica was near the equator hundreds of millions of years ago), but that is irrelevant to claims of reversal of the rotational poles. However, many of the disaster websites pull a bait-and-shift to fool people. They claim a relationship between the rotation and the magnetic polarity of Earth, which does change irregularly, with a magnetic reversal taking place every 400,000 years on average. As far as we know, such a magnetic reversal doesn’t cause any harm to life on Earth. A magnetic reversal is very unlikely to happen in the next few millennia, anyway.
Q: Is the Earth in danger of being hit by a meteor in 2012?
A: The Earth has always been subject to impacts by comets and asteroids, although big hits are very rare. The last big impact was 65 million years ago, and that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Today NASA astronomers are carrying out a survey called the Spaceguard Survey to find any large near-Earth asteroids long before they hit. We have already determined that there are no threatening asteroids as large as the one that killed the dinosaurs. All this work is done openly with the discoveries posted every day on the NASA NEO Program Office website, so you can see for yourself that nothing is predicted to hit in 2012.
Q: How do NASA scientists feel about claims of pending doomsday?
A: For any claims of disaster or dramatic changes in 2012, where is the science? Where is the evidence? There is none, and for all the fictional assertions, whether they are made in books, movies, documentaries or over the Internet, we cannot change that simple fact. There is no credible evidence for any of the assertions made in support of unusual events taking place in December 2012.
Q: Is there a danger from giant solar storms predicted for 2012?
A: Solar activity has a regular cycle, with peaks approximately every 11 years. Near these activity peaks, solar flares can cause some interruption of satellite communications, although engineers are learning how to build electronics that are protected against most solar storms. But there is no special risk associated with 2012. The next solar maximum will occur in the 2012-2014 time frame and is predicted to be an average solar cycle, no different than previous cycles throughout history.
What i think about 2012
In these days I have reported many articles on this blog about the 2012 and the end of the world’s collective obsession. Together with you I got an idea about this topic, very interesting and irresistible for each of us. It is from here that want to start my reflection for each of us this is an important topic, because it concerns us, our family, our relatives, people who are dear to us, all we have, the more macroscopic “our planet”.Only such an important subject can affect and attract the world’s population, including the least superstitious, has continually seek information to want to know. It is from these topics unknown to most people who start campaigns gain and corporate marketing. In fact just thinking about movies or books about 2012, that each of us has seen or read CORRECTLY, because affect us personally. Or simply have a link on the Internet that take us from page to page, site to site, from item to item, all source of income for someone. Well I think that this gain is only and exclusively lucre, because the people most sensitive to the strongest people, you expect a reaction to the fear created in the internet, on television or just heard about.I believe therefore, that the gain at the expense of the people, afraid that seek to know, is solely profit. I say all this because I see and hear that many people are frightened of the year that has just begun, especially children. I conclude by looking at the subject from a scientific point of view and not emotional, although I think the articles have already been more than exhaustive. This great fear was created by taking many natural phenomena that may occur, including alignment of the planets, reversal of magnetic fields and so on (all natural phenomena and as already said safe for humanity). By making use of all on the same day. One thing absurd, impossible and insane.
I wish you all a wonderful year and I would add that life and the whole universe is a set of reactions so perfect and harmonious that it is impossible that something could go wrong.
HAPPY NEW YEAR, D.F.
p.s: sorry for my english!!!